I am not an expert in this field but I had similar questions when I adopted my pet. So after some research and asking few vets, this is what I know.
1. There are pre-exposure vaccines for people. You have to consult your doctor for it or ask your vet he might suggest you where can you get vaccinated.
2. There is something called incubation period for rabies after you are bitten by a rabid dog. However there is difference in number of shots to be taken before exposure and after a susceptible case.
3. The mandate is to get vaccinated even if you had had a pre-exposure vaccination, whenever you cannot authenticate that you are not bitten by a rabid animal. That is even if you had a pre-exposure vaccination for rabies and you get bitten by a stray dog who you cannot prove is not rabid, then your doc may suggest you to get vaccinated again.
4. A vaccinated dog if bitten by a dog should be vaccinated again unless the dog who has bitten him is also vaccinated or you are 100% sure that the dog who has bitten him is not rabid.
After consulting a doctor and a vet I came to conclusion that it is better to get vaccinated only after being bitten by a dog who is not vaccinated. One of the vet suggested that standard procedure is to monitor the dog who has bitten you or your dog for atleast 10 days. If nothing happen to him then you are safe, I don't know if it is the standard procedure. I would get myself vaccinated
1. If I was bitten by a stray dog.
2. If I was to handle more than one dog.
3. If I was bitten by a vaccinated dog who in turn has been bitten by an non-vaccinated dog.
I hope it helps.